ارزیابی وضعیت امنیت غذایی خانوارهای پناهندة افغان در مناطق جنوب استان تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعة روستایی، دانشگاه لرستان، لرستان، ایران

چکیده

امروزه، موضوع تامین امنیت غذایی گروه­های آسیب­پذیر یکی از مهم­ترین چالش­ها در سطح بین­المللی محسوب می­شود. پناهندگان، به­عنوان یکی از این گروه­های آسیب­پذیر، همواره مورد توجه دولت­ها بوده و بهبود وضعیت امنیت غذایی آنان در بسیاری از کشورهای در حال توسعه و توسعه یافته اهمیت بسزایی دارد. در مطالعة پیش­رو، وضعیت امنیت غذایی پناهندگان افغان در مناطق جنوب تهران و عوامل موثر بر آن در سال 98-1397 بررسی شد. داده­های موردنیاز از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامة استاندارد HFIAS و پرسش­های مرتبط با متغیرهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی جمع­آوری شد. به­منظور بررسی ارتباط بین عوامل اقتصادی-اجتماعی از روش رگرسیون لاجستیک استفاده شد. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که 7/88 درصد از پناهندگان افغان در منطقة هدف با ناامنی غذایی مواجه هستند و شیوع ناامنی غذایی متوسط (7/40 درصد) بیش از حالت خفیف و شدید است. همچنین، برآورد مدل رگرسیون لاجستیک نشان داد که متغیرهای سن سرپرست خانوار، اشتغال سرپرست خانوار (دائم یا فصلی)، گروه درآمدی (گروه­های درآمدی متوسط و زیاد)، تعداد شاغلین و پس­انداز شخصی ارتباط معکوس و معناداری با شیوع ناامنی غذایی در بین خانوارهای پناهندة افغانی دارند. در طرف مقابل، متغیرهای دارای بودن فرزند بزرگتر از 18 سال، تعداد فرزند پسر و مصرف دخانیات ارتباط مستقیم و معناداری با شیوع ناامنی غذایی دارند. در نتیجه، بر اساس مطالعه متغیرهای اجتماعی- اقتصادی  بین این متغیرها و سطح ناامنی غذایی خانوارهای پناهندة افغان و ارتباط معنی‌داری وجود دارد. همچنین، بر اساس یافته‌ها، می‌توان توسعة فرصت­های شغلی، تسهیل دسترسی به امکانات بانکی کشور، آموزش­های لازم در جهت کاهش مصرف دخانیات و کاهش محدودیت­های شغلی را پیشنهاد نمود.

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