تاثیر ابعاد ساختاری ـ تشکیلاتی بر کارآفرینی در دانشکده‌های کشاورزی منطقه 5 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی ایران

2 استادیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشجوی دکتری ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی

4 عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بروجرد

چکیده

امروزه، بیکاری و عدم تطابق محتوای رشته تحصیلی دانش‌آموختگان کشاورزی با نیازهای بازار کار به مراتب از سایر رشته‌های دانشگاهی حادتر است. بهترین گزیدار برای ﺭﻓﻊ این ﻣﻌﻀﻞ، ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ﺍﻓﺮﺍدی ﻛﺎﺭﺁﻣﺪ ﻭ خلاﻕ و آماده نمودن فراگیران نظام آموزش عالی کشاورزی، جهت اشتغال در بازار کار از طریق آموزش کارآفرینی و تغییرات راهبردی در الگوهای آموزشی و پژوهشی دانشگاه‌ها و به­ویژه ایجاد دانشکده‌های کشاورزی کارآفرین می‌باشد. در این راستا، یکی از اولویت‌ها، سامان‌دهی "ساختاری ـ تشکیلاتی" دانشکده‌های کشاورزی در حرکت به سوی کارآفرین شدن، می‌باشد. هدف این تحقیق، بررسی تأثیر ابعاد مختلف ساختاری ـ تشکیلاتی بر کارآفرینی در دانشکده‌های کشاورزی بود که به صورت کمّی، به روش توصیفی ـ همبستگی و با استفاده از فن پیمایش انجام گرفت. جامعه آماری تحقیق را دانشجویان دانشکده‌های کشاورزی واحدهای منطقه 5 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تشکیل دادند (2896=N) که تعداد 341 نفر از آنان به ‌عنوان نمونه تحقیق با استفاده از جدول بارتلت و به روش نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای تصادفی با انتساب متناسب، انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه‌ای بود که روایی صوری و محتوایی آن مطابق نظر جمعی از صاحبنظران و اساتید مجرب و پایایی آن نیز از طریق آزمون آلفای کرونباخ برای بخش‌های مختلف پرسشنامه بین 76/0 تا 91/0 تأیید گردید. نتایج نشان داد که همه ابعاد ساختاری ـ تشکیلاتی شامل ساختار سازمانی، سیستم ارتباطات سازمانی، کارآفرین ‌بودن نظام حقوق و پاداش و نوآوری در امور آموزشی و پژوهشی با کارآفرینی رابطه‌ای معنی‌دار و مستقیم دارند. همچنین، بر اساس نتایج مدل معادلات ساختاری با استفاده از نرم‌افزار لیزرل، عامل ساختاری ـ تشکیلاتی به عنوان یک عامل مؤثر، پیش‌بینی‌کننده کارآفرینی در دانشکده‌های کشاورزی بود. در پایان، بر اساس نتایج تحقیق، پیشنهادهایی ارایه شده است.

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