سطح بهینه بودجه تبلیغات عمومی شیر: کاربرد روش‌های تخصیص مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه سید جمال الدین اسدآبادی، اسدآباد، همدان، ایران

چکیده

تبلیغات عمومی عمدتاً با هدف ایجاد تقاضا (معرفی) و ارتقاء مصرف، بدون نام‌بردن از یک نشان تجاری خاص صورت می‌گیرد. در زمانی که کالای هدف، از کالاهای اساسی در مصرف باشد، علاوه بر بنگاه‌ها، دولت‌ها نیز اقدام به انجام تبلیغات عمومی برای ارتقاء مصرف می‌کنند. یکی از کالاهای اساسی که در رشد و حفظ سلامتی مؤثر است، شیر و فرآورده‌های آن می‌باشد. بنابراین، ایجاد بسترهای لازم در خصوص تبلیغات عمومی، می‌تواند برای دولت‌ها و بنگاه‌ها سودآور باشد. پرسش اصلی تحقیق این است که مقدار بهینه اقتصادی بودجه تبلیغات عمومی (سرمایه‌گذاری در تبلیغات) چه میزان است و روش تخصیص بودجه تبلیغات چگونه بایستی باشد. بنابراین، در این مطالعه با استفاده از اطلاعات کتابخانه‌ای و سایر مطالعات علاوه بر تعیین بودجه بهینه تبلیغات عمومی شیر، به بررسی روش تخصیص جمعی، بهاء ثابت، بهاء سهمی، با یارانه دولت در دو حالت اقتصاد باز و بسته پرداخته می‌شود. نتایج نشان می‌دهد شاخص شدت تبلیغات بهینه در اقتصاد بسته در روش سرمایه‌گذاری جمعی، حدود 42/19 درصد، در روش بهاء ثابت و سهمی حدود 91/30 درصد، در روش بهاء ثابت با یارانه دولت، 30/54 درصد و در اقتصاد باز در روش سرمایه‌گذاری جمعی 74/10 درصد و در روش سرمایه‌گذاری بهاء ثابت 19/20 درصد از فروش می‌باشد. آنچه در این نتایج مشاهده می‌شود علاوه بر اینکه روش سرمایه‌گذاری بر سطح بهینه شاخص شدت تبلیغات اثرگذار است، سطح مبادلات بین‌المللی کشور نیز بر این شاخص مؤثر می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


  1. Alston, J.M., Carman, H.F. & Chalfant, J.A. (1994). Evaluating Primary Product promotion: the returns to generic advertising by a producer cooperative in a small, Open Economy. In E.W. Goddard and D.S. Taylor (eds.) Promotion in the Marketing Mix: What Works and Why? Proceedings from the NEC-63 Spring '94 Conference on Toronto, Ontario.
  2. Alston, J.M., Carman, H.F., Chalfant, J.A., Crespi, J.M., Sexton, R.J. & Venner, R.J. (1998). The California Prune Board's Promotion Program: An Evaluation. Giannini Foundation Research Report Series no. 344, Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics, Oakland CA.
  3. Balagtas, J.V. & Kim, S. (2007). Measuring the effects of generic dairy advertising in a multi-market equilibrium, American Journal of Agricultural Econmics, 89(4): 932–946.
  4. Bass, F. M., Krishnamoorthy, A., Prasad, A. & Sethi, S. P. (2005). Generic and brand advertising strategies in a dynamic duopoly, Marketing Science, 24(4):556-568
  5. Board of Massachusetts Dairy Promotion. (2015). Annual Report. OCLC Number: 969337681 Available at https://archives.lib.state.ma.us/handle/2452/625159
  6. Canadian Dairy Information Centre (CDIC). (2016). Milk and Cheese Available at www.dairyinfo.gc.ca.
  7. Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (2019). National Accounts of Iran, Various Years. Available at https://cbi.ir/simplelist/2054.aspx
  8. Chizari, A. H., Shokoohi, , Salami, H. & Hosseini, S. S. (2014). Existence of consumer habits and empirical analysis of demand: case study of dairy products demand for urban households in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 9(2):19-35. [In Farsi]
  9. Chung, H-S. & Kinnucan, H. W. (1991). Economic effect of an Advertising excise tax, Agribusiness, 7: 165-173.
  10. Cranfield, J. & Goddard, E. (1999). Open economy and processor oligopoly power effects of beef advertising in Canada, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47: 1-9.
  11. Crespi, J. M. (2016). The Generic advertising controversy: how did we get here and where are we going?, Review of Agricultural Economics, 25 (2): 294–315.
  12. Davis, G. C. (2005). The significance and insignificance of demand analysis in evaluating promotion programs, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87(3): 673-688.
  13. De Boer, J. (1997). Rural Product Promotion: economic aspects of promotability, organization and public assistance, Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics, 45 (1): 121-145.
  14. Dorfman, R. & Steiner, P. (1954). Optimal advertising and optimal quality, American Economic Review, 44: 826-836.
  15. Erfanian, Z. (2008). Assesment of Advertisng in Iranain milk Demand, Msc Thesis, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and development, University of Tehran. [In Farsi]
  16. (2019). Data, Available at https://www.gea.com/en/articles/gea-dairynet/index.jsp
  17. Freebairn, J.W. & Alston, J.M. (2001).Generic advertising without supply control: implications of funding mechanisms for advertising intensities in competitive industries. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 45(1): 117–145.
  18. Goddard, E. W. & McCutcheon, M.L. (1993). Optimal producer investment in generic advertising: the case of fluid milk in Ontario and Quebec, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 41 (3): 329-347.
  19. Hosseini, S. S. & Erfnian, Z. (2008). Factors affecting the demand for milk and dairy product: with an emphasis on advertising (study of the Iranian milk industry), Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development research, 39(1): 1-9.
  20. Hosseini, S. S. & Erfnian, Z. (2008). Factors affecting the demand for milk and dairy product: with an emphasis on advertising (study of the Iranian milk industry). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development research, 39(1): 1-9. [In Farsi]
  21. Industries Assistance Commission. (1976). Financing Promotion of rural Products, AGPS, Canberra.
  22. Kaiser, H. (2010). Measuring the impacts of generic fluid milk and dairy marketing, National Institute for Commodity Promotion Research and Evaluation. Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Cornell University, Ithaca, New York
  23. Khalilian, S. & Farhadi, A, (2002). Investigating the Factors affecting the export of agricultural sector in Iran. Agricultural Economics and Development Journal, 39(10), 71-84. [In Farsi]
  24. Kinnucan, H. W. (1999a). Advertising traded goods, Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 24:38-56.
  25. Kinnucan, H. W. (1999b). Optimal generic advertising decisions in supply –managed industries: clarification and some further results, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47:157-166.
  26. Kinnucan, H. W. (2002). Optimal generic advertising in an imperfectly competitive food industry with variable proportions. American Association of Agricultural Economics, Annual meeting, July 28-31, Long Beach, California,
  27. Kinnucan, H.W. (2003). Optimal generic advertising in an imperfectly competitive food industry with variable proportions, Agricultural Economics, 29: 143-158.
  28. Kinnucan, H. W. & Myrland, F. (2000). Optimal advertising levies with application to Norway-EU salmon Agreement, European Review of Agricultural Economics, 27: 39-57.
  29. Nerlove, M. & Waugh, F.V. (1961), Advertising without supply control: some implications of a study of the advertising of oranges, Journal of Farm Economic. 43: 471–88.
  30. Pahlavani, M., Dahmarde, N., Hosesini, S. M. (2007). Import and export demand function estimation For Iranian economy by ARDL convergence method, Quarterly Journal of Quantitative Economics, 4 (3): 101-120. [In Farsi]
  31. Pakravan, M.R., Mehrabi, H. & Gilanpoor, O. (2011). Estimating supply and demand function of Iran’s agricultural products export. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 24(4): 471-478. [In Farsi]
  32. Papaioannou, L., Tzimitra – Kalogianni, L. & Tegkelidou E. (2015). The Influence of advertisement in fresh milk consumers’ behavior, Proceeding of 7th International Conference Information and Communication Technology in Agriculture, Cavalla.
  33. Patalinghug, J. C. (2015). The effect of advertising and in-store promotions on the demand for chocolate. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 7(10): 1-10.
  34. Percy, L. & Elliot, R. (2005). Strategic advertising management, Oxford University Press, (Second Edition).
  35. Pishbahar, I. & Kheirinataj, M. (2014). Dairy demand survey in Iran using the almost ideal demand system, Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 45(3): 690-701. [In Farsi]
  36. Quilkey, J. (1986). Promotion of primary products-a view from the cloister, Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 30:35-52.
  37. Rejeana, M. G., Dharmasen, S. & Oral Capps, J. (2014). Dynamics of Advertising and demand for fluid milk in the United States: an incomplete demand approach, Southern Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Dallas.
  38. Shaffer, G. & Zettelmeyer, F.(2009). Comparative advertising and in-store displays, Marketing Science, 28(6): 1144-1156.
  39. Shahbazi, H. (2015). Generic advertising optimum budget for Iran’s milk industry, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 29(4): 389-400. [In Farsi]
  40. Shahbazi, H. (2016). Generic Dairy Advertising Effects in a Multi-Market Equilibrium, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 10(3): 89-112. [In Farsi]
  41. Shahbazi, H. & Faryadras, V. (2018). Milk optimal generic advertising expenditure in an imperfect competitive marketing level, Agricultural Economics and Development Journal, 26 (2):217-224. [In Farsi]
  42. Shahbazi, H. & Samdeliri, A. (2019). Application of multi-market equilibrium model on general advertising significance model in profit of milk industry in Iran, Agricultural Economics and Development Journal, 33(1), 25-39. [In Farsi]
  43. Shahbazi, H., Kavoosi, M., Peikani, GH. R., Erfanian, Z. & Abedi, S. (2009). Estimation of deadweight loss of monopoly in the milk production industry in Iran, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 65: 39-54. [In Farsi]
  44. Shahnooshi, N., Bakhshoodeh, M., Firoozzare, A., Azarinfar, Y. & Nikoukar, A. (2011). Adequacy assesment of animal protein products supply in the goals of the fourth Development Plan, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 74(19): 221-249. [In Farsi]
  45. Simon, M. (2014). Whitewashed: how industry and government promote dairy junk foods, eat drink policies. Available at eatdrinkpolitics.com
  46. Suzuki, N., Kaiser, H. M., Lenz, J. E., Kobayashi, k. & Forker, O. D. (1994). Evaluating generic milk promotion effectiveness with an imperfect competition model, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 76: 296-302.

USDA. (2017). Dairy promotion dollars continue to enhance demand, USDA Report. International Dairy Foods Association