تحلیل عوامل موثر بر کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی در راستای دستیابی به تولید پایدار زعفران (مطالعه موردی: شهرستان گناباد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج،‌ ایران

4 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی،‌ دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از نهاده­های شیمیایی به­دلیل ایجاد فرسایش و از بین‌ بردن سلامت خاک، پایداری کشت محصولات کشاورزی را به شدت تهدید کرده و همواره محل بحث بوده و نگرانی­هایی را ایجاد کرده است. مطالعه حاضر، به­منظور شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی در مزارع زعفران شهرستان گناباد انجام شد. بدین­منظور از روش تحقیق توصیفی-همبستگی استفاده شد. جامعه مورد مطالعه شامل تمام زعفران­کاران شهرستان گناباد بود. نمونه­گیری به روش تصادفی نسبی انجام شد که بر اساس آن، تعداد 105 زعفران­کار انتخاب شدند. ابزار جمع­آوری داده­ها پرسشنامه بود که روایی صوری آن مورد تایید اساتید اقتصاد کشاورزی قرار گرفت. پایایی سوالات مربوط به سنجش نگرش نسبت به کشاورزی پایدار با انجام یک پیش مطالعه بررسی شد که ضریب آلفای کرنباخ برابر 698/0 به­دست آمد. برای شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر مصرف کودهای شیمیایی از الگوی هکمن دو مرحله­ای استفاده شد. بر اساس نتایج، ضریب متغیر نگرش نسبت به کشاورزی پایدار در هر دو مرحله منفی و معنی‌دار بود که نشان می‌دهد بهبود نگرش کشاورزان به­صورت موثری موجب کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی می‌شود. در حالی­که ضریب متغیرهای درآمد کشاورزان، سن، سطح تحصیلات و بیمه کشاورزی در هر دو مرحله مثبت و معنی‌دار بود و بر احتمال و میزان استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی توسط کشاورزان می‌افزاید. بر اساس نتایج، اتخاذ راهکارهای مناسب به­منظور آشنایی زعفران‌کاران با مبانی کشاورزی پایدار، جلب اعتماد کشاورزان معتمد و با تجربه برای کاهش استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی و اصلاح ساختار نظام بیمه محصولات کشاورزی نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای در بهبود الگوی مصرفی کشاورزان از کود شیمیایی دارد. 

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