واکاوی تعیین‌کننده‌ها و پیشران‌های توسعه کارآفرینی روستایی در ایران با رویکرد فراتحلیل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

افزایش بحران‌های زیست‌محیطی، فقر، بیکاری و مهاجرت، توسعه کارآفرینی روستایی را ضروری ساخته است. لذا این پژوهش با هدف واکاوی تعیین‌کننده‌های کارآفرینی روستایی و پیشران‌های توسعه این نوع کارآفرینی انجام شده است. به‌منظور شناسایی عوامل تعیین‌کننده‌ کارآفرینی روستایی نسبت به فراتحلیل 34 مقاله منتشر شده تا انتهای سال 1395 اقدام شد. پیشران‌های توسعه کارآفرینی در مناطق روستایی نیز از طریق مرور ساختار‌یافته 15 مطالعه انجام شده در حوزه کارآفرینی روستایی شناسایی شدند. یافته‌ها نشان داد که اندازه اثر سازه‌های مختلف در شکل‌گیری کارآفرینی روستایی یکسان نیست. به‌نحوی‌که متغیرهای تجربه، شغل والدین، نگرش نسبت به کارآفرینی و ارتباطات ‌درون‌اجتماعی اندازه اثر بزرگتری داشتند. به‌منظور توضیح بخشی از ناهمگونی یافته‌ها از دو متغیر جنسیت و میزان توسعه‌یافتگی مناطق به‌عنوان متغیرهای تعدیل‌گر استفاده شد. یافته‌ها نشان داد که با در نظر گرفتن نقش متغیرهای تعدیل‌گر، معنی‌داری اندازه اثر متغیرها تغییر نخواهد کرد و تنها میزان بزرگی یا کوچکی اثرگذاری متغیرها دست‌خوش تغییر قرار می‌گیرد. از سوی دیگر، مرور ساختاریافته مطالعات منتخب نشان داد که سازه‌های مختلفی به پیش‌برد اهداف توسعه کارآفرینی روستایی کمک می‌کنند که مهم‌ترین آنها توانایی‌های کارآفرینانه، فرهنگ کارآفرینی، اصلاح یا تدوین قوانین حمایتی و دسترسی به سرمایه است. 

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