بررسی آثار حذف سیاست‌های حمایتی دولت در بازار گندم ایران؛ رویکرد تعادل بازار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

گندم به‌عنوان یک محصول راهبردی، از نظر میزان تولید و اختصاص سطوح زیر کشت، مهم‌ترین محصول کشاورزی در سراسر دنیا محسوب می‌شود و نقشی استراتژیک در عرصه‌ی سیاسی و اقتصادی کشورها ایفا می‌نماید. لذا هدایت عرضه و تقاضای این محصول و تنظیم بازار آن بر اساس منافع کارگزاران اقتصادی، امری اجتناب‌ناپذیر خواهد بود. در این راستا، مطالعه‌ی حاضر با استفاده از مدل تعادل فضایی قیمت‌ها، به بررسی آثار سیاست‌های حمایتی دولت در بازار این محصول و مقایسه‌ی این سیاست‌ها با شرایط آزادسازی بازار در ایران پرداخته است. نتایج نشان داد که در سال زراعی 1393-1392 با لحاظ نمودن توأمان سیاست قیمت تضمینی و قیمت سقف، در کل کشور به میزان 3165 هزار تن مازاد تقاضا برای گندم وجود خواهد داشت. اما با اتخاذ سیاست آزادسازی، مقدار تقاضای کل برابر 9/13 درصد و مقدار عرضه برابر 6/1 درصد کاهش خواهد یافت. همچنین اتخاذ رویکرد آزادسازی موجب افزایش 4/105 درصدی قیمت تقاضا و کاهش 9/9 درصدی قیمت عرضه می‌گردد. لذا می‌توان دریافت که اتخاذ سیاست آزادسازی در بازار گندم، بیش از آنکه در جهت منافع عرضه‌کنندگان این محصول عمل نماید، به زیان تقاضاکنندگان در این بازار خواهد بود و لذا پیشنهاد می شود همگام با آزاد سازی بازار گندم تدابیری همانند پرداخت جبرانی برای مصرف­کنندگان در نظر گرفته شود.

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