تحلیل آثار تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی از دیدگاه کارشناسان سازمان امور اراضی کشاورزی در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری توسعة کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد دانشکدۀ اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران

3 پژوهشگر ارشد دانشگاه گنت بلژیک

4 مدیر طرح و برنامة سازمان امور اراضی کشاورزی

چکیده

تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی، به دلیل ارتباط مستقیم آن با موضوعاتی چون امنیت‌غذایی و پایداری محیط‌زیست، به یکی از چالش‌های اساسی پیش روی بشر در قرن 21 تبدیل شده است. شدت تغییر کاربری این اراضی به گونه‌ای بوده است که بنابر گزارش سال 2012 فائو، بین سال‌های 1970 تا 2009 سرانه اراضی قابل کشت در جهان 46/1 و در ایران 054/2 درصد کاهش یافته است. بدون شک کاهش سطح این اراضی آثار گوناگون اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست‌محیطی را به همراه دارد. تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی اثرات این قبیل تغییرات انجام شد. این تحقیق از نوع پیمایشی بوده ابزار آن پرسشنامه بود. جامعۀ آماری این تحقیق کارشناسان شاغل در مدیریت‌ها و سازمان امور اراضی کشاورزی ایران در سال 1392 بودند. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه، «تسریع روند تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی به دلیل تغییر قیمت»، «افزایش انگیزۀ تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی در بین سایر کشاورزان» و «افزایش مصرف انرژی» مهم‌ترین آثار تغییر کاربری اراضی کشاورزی بوده‌اند. امّا، بر اساس نتایج مدل‌سازی معادلات ساختاری، «کاهش انگیزۀ زندگی در نواحی روستایی و خالی از سکنه شدن روستاها»، «افزایش ریسک درآمدی خانوارهای روستایی» و «کاهش کیفیت هوا» اگر چه مهم‌ترین آثار نیستند، مؤثرترین آثار این تغییرات‌ بوده‌اند.

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