آموزش‌های ترویجی و امنیت غذایی خانوارهای کشاورز (مورد مطالعه: شهرستان قروه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

2 کارشناس ارشد ترویج کشاورزی و توسعة روستایی

3 استادیار دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

چکیده

انسان به عنوان رکن اصلی اقتصاد جامعه، نیازهایی دارد که مهم­ترین آن­ها امنیت غذایی و تغذیة سالم است. امنیت غذایی زمانی وجود دارد که همة مردم در تمام ایام به غذای کافی، سالم و مغذی دسترسی فیزیکی و اقتصادی داشته باشند و غذای در دسترس، نیازهای یک رژیم تغذیه‌ای سازگار با ترجیحات آنان را برای یک زندگی فعال و سالم فراهم کند. پژوهش حاضر که با هدف بررسی وضعیت امنیت غذایی خانوارهای کشاورز و نقش عوامل مختلف، به‌ویژه نقش آموزش­های ترویجی بر آن در شهرستان قروه، استان کردستان انجام گرفته است، از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر نحوة گردآوری داده‌ها غیر آزمایشی است. روش تحقیق استفاده‌شده در این پژوهش پیمایشی- توصیفی است. جامعة آماری عبارت است از تمام خانوارهای کشاورز روستاهای شهرستان قروه که با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، 198 نفر از آن‌ها به عنوان نمونه انتخاب و بررسی شده‌اند. برای سنجش سطح امنیت غذایی از  مقیاس دسترسی به ناامنی غذایی در خانواده (HFIAS) استفاده شد. این شاخص نُه پرسش دارد و روایی و پایایی آن در مطالعات مختلف به اثبات رسیده است و روشی سریع و آسان برای سنجش امنیت غذایی است و پایایی آن در تحقیق حاضر 95/0 است. در این مطالعه، در کنار آمار توصیفی از تحلیل رگرسیون و تحلیل مسیر استفاده شده است. نتایج بررسی وضعیت امنیت غذایی نشان می‌دهد که تنها 15 درصد خانوارها امنیت کامل غذایی دارند. 5/42 درصد دارای ناامنی غذایی در سطح کم، 5/31 درصد دارای ناامنی متوسط و 11 درصد دارای ناامنی شدید غذایی‌اند. نتایج رگرسیون نشان داد پنج متغیر آگاهی تغذیه‌ای، مشارکت زنان، کلاس‌های ترویج، توان اقتصادی و تعداد افراد تحت تکفل تأثیر بیشتری بر تأمین امنیت غذایی خانوار دارند.

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