One of the challenges facing different societies is graduates who do not have the ability and skills to live in the present age. For this reason, it is necessary to prepare university graduates through the development of basic and basic skills (Arasteh, 2009). The university should train graduates who have the skills to work and adapt in life and be able to work effectively with others and be able to work in a team (Khoshnodifar et al., 2019). Accordingly, UNESCO has identified the skill of cooperation and teamwork as one of the seven general human skills of the third millennium (Salas et al., 2005). In the last half century, weakness in collective, group and team work in various fields has always been emphasized by domestic and foreign researchers and managers. For example, weakness in the culture of cooperation and scientific participation (Mohseni Tabrizi, 2002; Sari-e-Qalam, 2007; Khosrokhvar and others, 2007), political field (Sari-e-Qalam, 1997; Zibakalam, 2005), economic field; Sari al-Qalam, 2007), the field of organization and management (Rahbar, 2009; Mirzad, 2009) and sports (Aghabik, 2009) Has been emphasized. Ilam University with 7516 students studying (Ilam University Office of Monitoring and Evaluation, 2019), and despite the various scientific-research infrastructures such as research institutes and research centers, science and technology park, various growth centers (Ilam University Growth Center, Medicinal plants growth center, etc.), the number of nuclei and student-based knowledge-based companies is small. It seems that one of the expected functions of this university can be to set up and develop student work teams in the form of various working groups and start-ups; Therefore, this study has been compiled with the aim of identifying barriers to student teamwork in Agriculture faculty of Ilam University.
The methodology of this research is qualitative and among the qualitative methods, the phenomenological method has been used. Phenomenology emphasizes the small number of samples between 8 and 25 to determine the number of participants (Creswell, 2012). In this study, 18 faculty members and undergraduate students of the Faculty of Agriculture of Ilam University who were purposefully selected, interviews were conducted in a period of 40 to 55 minutes. Typically, the tool used in phenomenological research is a semi-structured open interview. The interview protocol consisted of two questions. Sampling and interviews continued until the categories (basic questions) reached theoretical saturation; Theoretical saturation is the stage in which new data does not appear in relation to the categories in question, the categories are well-expanded, and the relationships between the categories are established to an acceptable and verifiable degree (Glaser, 1978). Data analysis was performed based on the approach of Dickelman et al. (1989). Reliability (accuracy of findings from the perspective of the researcher and research participants) was used to ensure the validity and reliability of the data.
In this study, in the open coding stage, 18 in-depth interview sessions were held. Interviews ranged from 40 minutes to 55 minutes. At this stage, 39 pages of the interview text were collected. Each interview was carefully read several times and the open data coding was performed. After analyzing the content of the interviews and encoding the text of the interviews, 44 open codes were extracted, which was reduced to 30 open codes after refining them. In this study, after carefully reading the text of the interviews, quotes with similar meanings were extracted. After specifying these quotes and considering the meaning and concept desired by the participants, the return codes were extracted. Next, these open source codes were categorized into four main axes. By carefully examining the concept of open source, barriers to student teamwork were categorized into four axes: individual, structural, contextual, and the nature of the work.
The results showed that a group of inhibitors of teamwork among students goes back to the individual characteristics of students. Other researchers, such as Farhi et al. (2010), have also considered individual characteristics as factors influencing teamwork. One of the individual characteristics mentioned by the participants in this study is the low creativity and innovation of students. Senior and Sawiles (2004); Batman and Wilson (2005), Profits (2013) also point to the effect of creativity on teamwork. It seems that in the current situation, the higher education system needs to focus more on improving students' creativity than before. The results showed that a group of inhibitors of teamwork among students is related to environmental and contextual characteristics. Other researchers, such as Paris et al. (2000), Anthony and Hertel (2009), have also considered contextual characteristics as factors influencing teamwork. One of the underlying deterrents that has led to a decrease in teamwork among students. There has been a lack of successful models of teamwork at Ilam University. Given the importance of role models in increasing entrepreneurial activities, it is suggested that Ilam University, by inviting successful student working teams from other universities in the country and highlighting student working groups located within the province, provide the use of the experience of these working groups for other students. The results showed that a group of inhibitors of teamwork among students goes back to structural and organizational inhibitors. Other researchers such as Gil and Piero (2005), Crittner (2001), Farhi et al. (2010) have also considered structural and organizational characteristics as effective factors on teamwork. One of the contextual barriers that has led to a decrease in teamwork among students is due to the weak organizational structure of the business sector at the university. The results showed that a group of barriers to teamwork among students goes back to barriers to the nature of work. One of the barriers to the nature of work that has led to a decrease in teamwork among students. The lack of work has been challenging to work in a team. It is suggested that the Vice Chancellor for Research and Technology of the University identify challenging activities and topics to motivate students to do teamwork and team building.
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