Psychological factors affecting the Farmers' Soil Conservation Behavior in Nurabad Township

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Rural Development, College of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramaba, Iran

3 M.S. Student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran


Recently, water governance has become important due to the increasing complexities associated with water management. So that it is widely acknowledged that the world water crisis is more a crisis of governance than of water scarcity. In recent decades adopting the ‘Water Independence of Provinces’ law has created many social, environmental, economic and managerial crises in the Zayandeh-Rud basin and its two sub-basins (Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari) which have resulted in conflicts between the sub-basin stakeholders. The current applied study was qualitative regarding its methodology and followed a case study approach. The statistical population of the study included managers and senior experts of water governance in two sub-basins (Isfahan and Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari) and finally nine managers and experts in Isfahan sub-basin, four cases in extra-basin level, and six cases in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari sub-basin were selected as the sample population by means of snowball sampling method till theoretical saturation. Data collection was done by structured questionnaire and interview protocol. Using fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), the empirical analysis of water governance systems in two sub-basins showed that a set of factors associated with low performance regarding climate change adaptation. Regarding performance aspect, water governance in Zayandeh-Rud basin and its two sub-basins were Centralized Rent-seeking and Centralized Coordinated, respectively. This means that both basin and sub-basins have low performance regarding climate change adaptation and ability to resilience and adaptation challenges. The reason for the difference in the type of water governance performance at the level of the Zayandeh-Rud basin and its sub-basins was the poor coordination between water related organizations in sub-basins.


Main Subjects

  1. Abdollahzadeh, G., Leila, J., & Sharifzadeh, M. (2018). Investigating Awareness regarding Impacts of Soil Erosion and Conservative Measures in Rural Areas of Golestan’Chehel-Chay Watershed. Geography and Environmental Planning, 29(1), 1-20. [In Farsi]
  2. Agricultural Jihad Organization of Lorestan Province. (2018). Conservation agriculture in Lorestan Provience. 10-20.
  3. Ahmad, N. S. B. N., Mustafa, F. B., & Didams, G. (2020). A systematic review of soil erosion control practices on the agricultural land in Asia. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 8(2), 103-115.
  4. Ajzen, I. (2002). Constructing a TPB questionnaire: conceptual and methodological considerations. Brief Description of the Theory of Planned Behavior, 1-14.
  5. Ajzen, I. (2006). Constructing a TpB Questionnaire: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations. Retrieved June 27, 2011 from the World Wide Web:
  6. Ashoori, D., Bagheri, A., Allahyari, M. S., & Al-Rimawi, A. S. (2016). An examination of soil and water conservation practices in the paddy fields of Guilan province, Iran. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 88, 959-971. [In Farsi]
  7. Bazrafkan, K., Zamani, G. H., Rezae-Moghaddam, K., & Namdar, R. (2020). Behavioral Model of Crop Soil Conservation (Case Study: Wheat Growers in Marvdasht Township). Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 27(4), 109-128. [In Farsi]
  8. Betela, B., & Wolka, K. (2021). Evaluating soil erosion and factors determining farmers’ adoption and management of physical soil and water conservation measures in Bachire watershed, southwest Ethiopia. Environmental Challenges, 5, 100348.
  9. Bijani, M., Ghazani, E., Valizadeh, N., & Fallah Haghighi, N. (2019). Predicting and Understanding Farmers' Soil Conservation Behavior in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 21(7), 1705-1719.
  10. Borges, J. A. R., Lansink, A. G. O., Ribeiro, C. M., & Lutke, V. (2014). Understanding farmers’ intention to adopt improved natural grassland using the theory of planned behavior. Livestock Science, 169, 163-174.
  11. Borges, J.A.R., Lansink, A.G.J.M.O., Ribeiro, C.M., Lutke, V., (2014). Understanding farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland using the Theory of Planned Behavior. Sci. 169, 163-174.
  12. Carlisle, L. (2016). Factors influencing farmer adoption of soil health practices in the United States: A narrative review. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 40(6), 583-613.
  13. Chen, W. and Xie, X. (2013). Study on the mechanism of the impact of climate disasters on food security, Issues in Agricultural Economy, 1, 12-19.
  14. Dehghanpur, H., & Zibaei, M. (2020). Investigation of Factors Affecting Farmers' Motivation in Using Water and Soil Conservation Technologies. Agricultural Economics and Development, 28(110), 121-146.
  15. Di Falco, S. and Chavas, J.P. (2009). On crop biodiversity, risk exposure, and food security in the highlands of Ethiopia, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 91(3), 599-611
  16. Farhadi, H. A., & Fallah, V. (2017). Role of education on the application of soil conservation practices in order to sustainability of paddy in Sari County. Environmental Education and Sustainable Development, 6(1), 69-82. [In Farsi]
  17. Fealy, S., Osmanpour, M., & Mirzaei, A. (2013). The impact of extension services on the knowledge of application of soil conservation technologies by farmers in Marivan township. Iran. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Education Research, 6(21), 47. [In Farsi]
  18. Ghasemi, V. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling in Social Researches (using Amos Graphics). Tehran: Sociologists. [In Farsi]
  19. Gholami, M., Alibygi, A., & Papzan, A. (2020). Pathology of non-acceptance conservation agriculture in Kermanshah province by using Paradigm model. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.22 (9), 130-138. [In Farsi]
  20. Greiner, R. (2015). Motivations and attitude influence farmers' willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation contracts. Syst. 137, 154-165.
  21. Guo, X., Zhou, L., Chen, Y., Zhao, M. and Wang, R. (2017). Perception and adaption of ecological environment change for farmers in the typical desertification area: a case of hangjin banner in the Inner Mongolia autonomous region, Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 31 (3), 64-69.
  22. Jara-Rojas, R., Bravo-Ureta, B.E. and Díaz, J. (2012). Adoption of water conservation practices: a socioeconomic analysis of small-scale farmers in Central Chile, Agricultural Systems, 110, 54-62.
  23. Ji, A. (2017). Mechanism analysis and empirical model of investment behavior of soil and water conservation in donggang city farmer, Heilongjiang Hydraulic Science and Technology, 45 (8), 224-226.
  24. Karani, Z., Shiri, N., & Salehi, L. (2014). Attitude of farmers to soil conservation practices (SCPs) in Kermanshah Province. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research (IJAEDR), 45(1). [In Farsi]
  25. Khisa, P., Gachene, C.K., Karanja, N. and Mureithi, J. (2007). The effect of post harvest crop cover on soil erosion in a maize-legume based cropping system in gatanga, Kenya, Journal of Agriculture in the Tropics and Subtropics, 103, pp. 17-28.
  26. Lalani, B., Dorward, P., Holloway, G., & Wauters, E. (2016). Smallholder farmers' motivations for using Conservation Agriculture and the roles of yield, labour and soil fertility in decision making. Agricultural Systems, 146, 80-90.
  27. Lauwere, C., Asseldonk, M., Riet, J., Hoop, J., Pierick, E. (2012). Understanding farmers' decisions with regard to animal welfare: the case of changing to group housing for pregnant sows. Sci. 143, 151-161.
  28. Li, Y. (2017). Behavior mechanism analysis of farmers’ soil and water conservation in hilly areas of North China: a case study of Liaoning South ticket area, Technical Supervision in Water Resources, 25 (5), 103-105.
  29. Liu, H., & Luo, X. (2018). Understanding farmers’ perceptions and behaviors towards farmland quality change in northeast China: A structural equation modeling approach. Sustainability, 10(9), 3345.
  30. Mezbani, M., Rezaei Moghadam, M., & Hejazi, A. (2021). Assessment of soil erosion risk in land uses using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Case Study: Sikan Basin). Journal of Geography and Environmental Hazards, 10(1), 41-63. [In Farsi]
  31. Moghaddasi, M., Khodaverdizadeh, M., Hashemi Bonab, S., & Sokouti Oskoee, R. (2018). Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Adoption of Soil Conservation Non-Mechanical Methods in Order to Maintain the Sustainability (Case Study: Urmia County). Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 28(4), 229-245. [In Farsi]
  32. Momeny, C.D., Dashti, G., Dashti, B., Rezaie, A., & Mohammad Rezaie, R. (2010). Factors Affecting the Adoption of Non-Mechanical Practices of Soil Conservation Among Dry Farmers: A Case Study of the Izeh Township-Iran. Journal of agricultural science and sustainable production, 20(2), 89-101. [In Farsi]
  33. Noori, H., Jamshidi, A.R., Jamshidi, M., Hedayati Moghadam, Z., & Fathi, A. (2014). Reviwing factors affecting the acceotance of soil protection measures, a step towards sustainable development of agriculture. Iranian journal of agricultural economics and development research,45(1), 195-205.
  34. Pimentel, D., & Burgess, M. (2013). Soil erosion threatens food production. Agriculture, 3(3), 443-463.
  35. Sabour, L., Rezaei-Moghaddam, K., & Menati-Zadeh, M. (2017). Factors Influencing Adoption of Soil Conservation Practices among Farmers in Garmsar County. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal, 13(1), 59-73. [In Farsi]
  36. Sartori, M., Philippidis, G., Ferrari, E., Borrelli, P., Lugato, E., Montanarella, L., & Panagos, P. (2019). A linkage between the biophysical and the economic: Assessing the global market impacts of soil erosion.
  37. Savari, M., Yazdanpanah, M., & Rouzaneh, D. (2022). Factors affecting the implementation of soil conservation practices among Iranian farmers. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-13.
  38. Seifi, R., Chizari, M., & Abbasi, E. (2018). Factors affecting framers' soil conservation behavior in West Azerbaijan province: a cultural approach. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal, 13(2), 219-234. [In Farsi]
  39. Shiri, N., Hashemi, S. M. K., Mirakzadeh, A. L. I. A. S. G. H. A. R., & Esshaghi, S. R. (2013). Factors affecting using soil conservation practices (SCDs) by farmers in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research (IJAEDR), 44(2). [In Farsi]
  40. Tohidyan Far, S., Rezaei Moghaddam, K. (2015). Attitudes of farmers toward participation in irrigation and drainage projects: the structural equations modeling analysis, Iran Agricultural Research, 34(1): 80-91. [In Farsi]
  41. Tolassa, T. B., & Jara, G. O. (2021). Factors affecting improved seed and soil conservation technology adoptions in Bore District. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 1-12.
  42. Wauters, E., Bielders, C., Poesen, J., Govers, G., & Mathijs, E. (2010). Adoption of soil conservation practices in Belgium: An examination of the theory of planned behaviour in the agri-environmental domain. Land Use Policy, 27(1), 86–94.
  43. Willy, D. K., & Holm-Müller, K. (2013). Social influence and collective action effects on farm level soil conservation effort in rural Kenya. Ecological economics, 90, 94-103.
  44. Wordofa, M. G., Okoyo, E. N., & Erkalo, E. (2020). Factors influencing adoption of improved structural soil and water conservation measures in Eastern Ethiopia. Environmental Systems Research, 9(1), 1-11.
  45. Zhai, W. and Hang, X. (2005). Analysis on the mechanism of farm household behavior of water and soil conservation, Research of Soil and Water Conservation, 6, 112-116.