Assessing the Effects of Migrations on Immigrant Households’ Sustainable Livelihood in Rural Areas of Golestan Province

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.


Improving the livelihoods of local people has received growing attention during last two decades and is one of the main goals of national government. This research aimed to investigate the effect of migration on the sustainable livelihood of Sistanian immigrant households in the rural area of Golestan province. The research method is a descriptive survey based on a questionnaire. The target population includes 25,000 heads of migrant households from Sistan and Baluchestan province to Golestan province. Using Cochran's formula, 250 persons were selected as the research sample. Samples were selected from 12 counties of Golestan province by multi-stage cluster sampling. Validity of the questionnaire was verified based on expert's view and reliability was confirmed based on the calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The results of the one sample t-test showed that the natural and financial capital were less than average (inappropriate). The results of investigating livelihood strategies showed that, the most important livelihood strategies are farming, livestock, horticulture, stockpiling forestry resources and being worker. The results of assessing vulnerability trends showed that items such coherence and solidarity of households, income-earning job opportunities, numbers of livestock and poultry, income level and household purchasing power were more important in reducing vulnerability. While items such as inflation and high pollution of air and water were more important in increasing vulnerability. The results of assessing the immigration impacts showed that the economic, natural, cultural-social and service-welfare impacts of immigration were more than average. These results indicate that immigration has led to changes and improvements in the households' life, and expected positive effects such as improved welfare and access to services and employment have been achieved.


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