Apicultural extension productivity in Caspian zone: A causal analysis

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Extension productivity as a process are combined of efficiency, effectiveness, intellectual orientation and attention to the standard quality levels for the system that have to be consider its goal in obtaining maximum benefits and potentials regarding to current resources and facilities. Such organized process requires an extensive awareness from all effective factors in productivity improvement and increase from which the achieved results can be available for planners, policy-makers and administrators. The purpose of this causal- correlative study was to investigate affecting factors of apicultural extension productivity in Caspian zone, Iran by applying path analysis. Research population was all beekeepers of Caspian zone (5273 people) that out of which, 315 beekeepers were selected through stratified random sampling method. The research tool included a questionnaire that validity of which was confirmed by a group of professionals. A pilot study was conducted during the Cronbach's alpha test which was calculated to determinate the reliability of data collection instrument and was found to be in acceptable range from 0.68 to 0.81. Results showed that age of beekeepers, had a negative effect and use of audio-visual equipment, personal communication channels; apiary area and adoption of innovations have a positive effect on apicultural extension productivity. Also two variables of beekeeper’s age and apiary area affect the apicultural extension productivity directly and indirectly by influencing on the use of audio-visual equipment, personal communication channels and adoption of innovations. In this analysis, beekeeper’s age and adoption of innovations had minimum and maximum direct effects respectively on apicultural extension productivity. Also, Beekeeper’s age had maximum indirect effect. Based on the findings, some executive recommendations have been presented at the end of the article.


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